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Names in German and English - and how we use them here

It seems that there is no rule on how to use the names of cities, mountains and valleys of the world, even with languages as close as German and English. We all say "New York" and "Chesapeake Bay", but on the other hand we rather say "Themse" than "Thames". In the Internet, you find the German name "Siebengebirge" as well as the English version "Seven Mountains". The mountains, actually they are hills, are known by their German name. Nonetheless, it might interest you what they mean.

Drachenfels
Drachenfels

Masculine in German, Dragon Rock.
Einsiedlertal
Einsiedlertal

Neutral in German, the
Hermit Valley.
Löwenburg
Löwenburg

Feminine in German, lion castle, or better: castle as strong as lions.
Lohrberg
Lohrberg

Masculine in German, mountain with a planted meadow, a medieval name.
Nachtigallental
Nachtigallental

Neutral in German, the Nightingale Valley.
Nonnenstromberg
Nonnenstromberg

Masculine in German, mountain less high than Stromberg, Mt. Petersberg's early medieval name
Ölberg
Ölberg

Masculine in German, seems to be Mount of Olives, but it goes back to its the medieval name.
Petersberg
Petersberg

Masculine in German, Mount St. Peter.
Rosenau
Rosenau

Feminine in German, Roses meadow, but it goes back to the medieval name Rosenouwe.
Wolkenburg
Wolkenburg

Feminine in German, Cloud castle, or better: castle so high that it touches the clouds.
   

Mountains and medieval castles

The medieval castle ruins in the Siebengebirge are named after their mountain. So the medieval castle on top of Mount Drachenfels is also named Drachenfels, the one on top of Mount Löwenburg is also named Löwenburg, and the same goes for the small ruin Rosenau close to Mount Ölberg.